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Child Labor in India essays


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  • India
  • International Labour Organization
  • Employment
  • Sri Lanka
  • Labour Movement
  • Literacy
  • Debt
  • International Programme On The Elimination Of Child Labour
  • Human Rights Watch
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    Child Labor in India



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                 India has many crises affecting it at this time. Among them is the important and sad issue of child labor. There are approximately 60 to 115 million child laborers in India (Human Rights Watch, 1996). Most child laborers work in the agriculture field but most organizations for human rights focus on the bonded laborers in the cities. Bonded child labor "refers to the phenomenon of children working in conditions of servitude in order to pay off a debt" (Human Rights Watch, 1996).
                
    In bonded child labor a creditor loans the parents a small amount of money in exchange for their child's labor. The labor is extremely cheap and the children work until the loan can be paid off in one lump sum. This almost never happens because the interest rates are greater than the wages of the child.
                
    Poverty and lack of proper education aid child labor. In rural areas poverty affects 39% of the population and in urban areas poverty strikes 37% of the population (International Labor Organization). Families need as much money as possible to survive and the children provide needed income. The children of families don't get an education and become illiterate. From working since the age of four or five they wear down their bodies and die at the age of forty or fifty passing on their debts to their children. Without and education it makes it near impossible for them to get out of poverty as adults. Their children after inheriting their parents' debts are forced into a life of poverty, which creates an almost never-ending cycle. Sometimes the creditor of a child will release the child in favor for younger children, which helps some but then they have no education and are forced to continue in poverty.
                
    India seems determined to eradicate child labor when looking at its laws. The Bonded Labor System Act of 1976 "frees all bonded laborers, cancels any outstandin
                

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    Dartmouth Home

    Eric V. Edmonds
    Professor of
    Economics

    Edmonds Pciture
    Chair:
    International Studies

    Director:


    Child Labor Network at IZA

    Faculty

    Research Fellow:
    National Bureau of Economic Research
    Associate Editor:
    Economic Development and Cultural Change

    Department

    of Economics
    6106 Rockefeller Hall

    Dartmouth College

    Hanover, NH 03755-3514

    Office: 308 Rockefeller Hall
    Phone: (603) 646-2944
    Fax: (603) 646-2122
    [email protected]

    Follow

    @EdmondsEric on Twitter

     

    Curriculum Vitae Research
    Teaching Child Labor Development Economics At
    Dartmouth
    Home

    Child Labor

    A survey of the child labor
    literature in economics aimed at graduate
    students interested in child labor, January 2007
    (minor revisions, June 2007). Published in the
    Handbook of Development Economics, Volume 4

    Trade, Child
    Labor, and Schooling in Poor Countries

    An essay on how trade
    adjustment in poor countries impacts child labor
    and schooling.  This essay is part of a
    World Bank project on understanding trade
    adjustment, 2009

    Public Health
    in the Economics of Child Labor

    An

    accessible discussion of issues of the
    interaction of child labor and public health
    published in in A. Fassa,
    D. Parker, and T. Scanlon (eds.), Child Labour—A
    Public Health Perspective, Oxford University
    Press, 2010


    Defining Child Labour:  A
    review of the definitions of child labour in
    policy research

    A
    critical review of the different definitions and
    concepts of child labor used in academic and
    policy research.  Published by
    International Labour Office, International
    Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour
    (IPEC) – Geneva:  ILO, 2009


    Children’s

    Work and Independent Child Migration: A
    Critical Review
    (with M. Shrestha)

    A review of the
    implication of the child labor literature
    for research and policy work on
    independent child migration (commissioned
    by UNICEF), 2009


    Schooling

    Costs:  The link between tariff reform,
    poverty, and educational attainment
      (with

    N. Pavcnik)


    A
    non-technical summary of recent research on
    child labor and trade reform in India,
    VoxEU.org ,
    May 28, 2008

    Trade and Child Labour    (with N.
    Pavcnik)

    An accessible
    description of recent research on how
    international trade influences child labor in poor
    countries, VoxEU.org , July 19, 2007


    The Economics of Consumer
    Actions against Products with Child Labor
    Content

    An essay
    aimed at educated readers with little
    formal economics background,
    published in
    The World of Child Labor , H. Hindman ed., 2009


    Child Labor

    A
    concise description of the economics literature
    on child labor with a focus on international
    issues, presumes some background in economics,
    commissioned for 
    The Princeton Encyclopedia of the
    World Economy
    ,
    April 2007


    Understanding Child
    Labor:  Patterns, Types, and Causes

    A
    commissioned essay for a U.S. State Department
    publication,
    Ending Abusive Child Labor , May 2005


    Child Labor in the Global
    Economy
     

    (with N. Pavcnik)

    An introduction to the child
    labor literature in economics aimed at an academic
    audience,

    Journal of Economic Perspectives
    18(1), Winter 2005, 199-220

    LINKS:

    Research:

    IZA Child Labor Research
    Network

    Understanding Children’s Work
    Project

    Recent research in Google
    Scholar

    News:

    Search for child labor in the
    news


    IGOs:

    International Labor
    Organization

    U.S. Department of Labor

    UNICEF

    World Bank


    NGOs:

    Rugmark

    Foundation

    Global March

    Child Labor Coalition

    Anti Slavery International

    CWIN-Nepal

    Human Rights Watch

    *The black and white pictures in
    this page come from two excellent collections by David
    Parker:

    Stolen Dreams

    Before Their Time:  The World of Child
    Labor


    Eric V. Edmonds’ Department home page.
    Send comments or report broken links to
    [email protected] .

    Revised March 29, 2012.

    About the Author: admin