Living and Non-Living Cells and Tissues in Trees

Living and Non-Living Cells and Tissues in Trees

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  • Grade 4

    • Life and Living

      • 1 Living and non-living things

        • 1.1 Living things
        • 1.2 Non-living things
      • 2 Structure of plants and animals

        • 2.1 Structure of plants
        • 2.2 Structure of animals
      • 3 What plants need to grow

        • 3.1 Conditions for growth
        • 3.2 Growing new plants
      • 4 Habitats of animals and plants

        • 4.1 What is a habitat?
        • 4.2 Different habitats
        • 4.3 Why do animals need a habitat?
      • 5 Structures for animal shelters

        • 5.1 Natural and man-made shelters
        • 5.2 Structures and materials for animal shelters
    • Matter and Materials

      • 1 Materials around us

        • 1.1 Solids, liquids and gases
        • 1.2 Change of state
        • 1.3 The water cycle
      • 2 Solid materials

        • 2.1 Solid materials all around us
        • 2.2 Raw and manufactured materials
        • 2.3 Properties of materials
        • 2.4 Different materials for the same object
      • 3 Strengthening materials

        • 3.1 Ways to strengthen materials
      • 4 Strong frame structures

        • 4.1 Struts and frame structures
        • 4.2 Indigenous structures
    • Energy and Change

      • 1 Energy and energy transfer

        • 1.1 Energy for life
        • 1.2 Energy from the Sun
      • 2 Energy around us

        • 2.1 Energy
        • 2.2 Input and output energy
      • 3 Movement and energy in a system

        • 3.1 Movement and musical instruments
        • 3.2 Movement causes sound
        • 3.3 Indigenous musical instruments in South Africa
      • 4 Energy and Sound

        • 4.1 Vibrations and sound
        • 4.2 Noise pollution
    • Earth and Beyond

      • 1 Planet Earth

        • 1.1 Features of the Earth
        • 1.2 The Earth in Space
      • 2 The Sun

        • 2.1 The Sun is the closest star
      • 3 The Earth and the Sun

        • 3.1 Moving around the Sun
        • 3.2 The Earth and other planets
        • 3.3 The Sun and life
      • 4 Rocket Systems

        • 4.1 The Thunderbolt Kids need a rocket
        • 4.2 How do rockets work?
        • 4.3 Modelling a rocket
      • 5 The Moon

        • 5.1 Features of the Moon
        • 5.2 The phases of the Moon
        • 5.3 Moon stories
  • Grade 5

    • Life and Living

      • 1 Plants and animals on Earth

        • 1.1 Many different plants and animals
        • 1.2 Interdependence in an ecosystem
        • 1.3 Animal types
      • 2 Animal skeletons

        • 2.1 Skeletons of vertebrates
        • 2.2 Movement in vertebrates
      • 3 Skeletons as structures

        • 3.1 Structures
      • 4 Food chains

        • 4.1 Food and feeding in plants and animals
        • 4.2 Food chains
      • 5 Life cycles

        • 5.1 Growth and development
        • 5.2 Plant life cycles
        • 5.3 Animal life cycles
    • Matter and Materials

      • 1 Metals and non-metals

        • 1.1 Properties of metals
        • 1.2 Properties of non-metals
      • 2 Uses of metals

        • 2.1 Special properties of metals
        • 2.2 Uses of metals
      • 3 Processing materials

        • 3.1 Combining material
      • 4 Processed materials

        • 4.1 Properties and uses
        • 4.2 Traditional processing
    • Energy and Change

      • 1 Stored energy in fuels

        • 1.1 What are fuels?
        • 1.2 Burning fuels
        • 1.3 Fire safety
      • 2 Energy and electricity

        • 2.1 Cells and batteries
        • 2.2 Mains electricity
        • 2.3 Safety and electricity
      • 3 Energy and movement

        • 3.1 Elastics and springs
      • 4 Systems for moving things

        • 4.1 Wheels and axles
    • Earth and Beyond

      • 1 Planet Earth

        • 1.1 The Earth moves
      • 2 Surface of the Earth

        • 2.1 Rocks
        • 2.2 Soil comes from rocks
        • 2.3 Soil types
      • 3 Sedimentary rocks

        • 3.1 Formation of sedimentary rock
        • 3.2 Uses of sedimentary rock
      • 4 Fossils

        • 4.1 Fossils in rock
        • 4.2 Body and trace fossils
        • 4.3 Importance of South African fossils
  • Grade 6

    • Life and Living

      • 1 Photosynthesis

        • 1.1 Plants and food
        • 1.2 Food from photosynthesis
        • 1.3 Plants and air
      • 2 Nutrients in food

        • 2.1 Food groups
      • 3 Nutrition

        • 3.1 A balanced diet
        • 3.2 Diseases caused by an unhealthy diet
      • 4 Food processing

        • 4.1 Why do we need food processing?
        • 4.2 How are foods processed?
      • 5 Ecosystems and food webs

        • 5.1 Different ecosystems
        • 5.2 Living and non-living things in ecosystems
        • 5.3 Food webs
    • Matter and Materials

      • 1 Solids, liquids and gases

        • 1.1 Arrangement of particles
      • 2 Mixtures

        • 2.1 Mixtures of materials
      • 3 Solutions as special mixtures

        • 3.1 Solutions
        • 3.2 Soluble substances
        • 3.3 Saturated solutions
      • 4 Dissolving

        • 4.1 What is dissolving?
        • 4.2 Rates of dissolving
      • 5 Mixtures and water resources

        • 5.1 Water pollution
        • 5.2 Importance of wetlands
      • 6 Processes to purify water

        • 6.1 Clean water
    • Energy and Change

      • 1 Electric circuits

        • 1.1 A simple circuit
        • 1.2 Circuit diagrams
      • 2 Electrical conductors and insulators

        • 2.1 What are conductors and insulators?
        • 2.2 Good electrical conductors and insulators
      • 3 Systems to solve problems

        • 3.1 Using electric circuits
        • 3.2 Be an electrical engineer or technician
      • 4 Mains electricity

        • 4.1 Fossil fuels
        • 4.2 Cost of electricity
        • 4.3 Illegal connections
        • 4.4 Renewable ways to generate electricity
    • Earth and Beyond

      • 1 The solar system

        • 1.1 The Sun, planets and asteroids
        • 1.2 Moons
      • 2 Movements of the Earth and planets

        • 2.1 Rotation (Earth)
        • 2.2 Revolution (Earth)
      • 3 The movement of the Moon

        • 3.1 Rotation (Moon)
        • 3.2 Revolution (Moon)
      • 4 Systems to explore the Moon and Mars

        • 4.1 Vehicles used on Mars
        • 4.2 Vehicles used on the Moon
        • 4.3 Design and make a vehicle to collect Moon rocks
      • 5 Systems for looking into Space

        • 5.1 Telescopes
  • Graad 4

    • Lewe en Lewenswyse

      • 1 Lewende en nie-lewende dinge

        • 1.1 Lewende dinge
        • 1.2 Nie-lewende dinge
      • 2 Strukture van plante en diere

        • 2.1 Strukture van plante
        • 2.2 Strukture van diere
      • 3 Wat plante nodig het om te groei

        • 3.1 Voorwaardes vir groei
        • 3.2 Groeiende nuwe plante
      • 4 Habitatte van diere en plante

        • 4.1 Wat is ‘n habitat?
        • 4.2 Verskillende habitatte
        • 4.3 Waarom het diere ‘n habitat nodig?
      • 5 Strukture vir diereskuilings

        • 5.1 Natuurlike en mensgemaakte skuilings
        • 5.2 Strukture en materiale vir diereskuilings
    • Materie en Stowwe

      • 1 Materiale rondom ons

        • 1.1 Vaste stowwe, vloeistowwe en gasse
        • 1.2 Verandering van toestand
        • 1.3 Die watersiklus
      • 2 Vastestowwe

        • 2.1 Vastestowwe is orals om ons
        • 2.2 Rou en vervaardigde materiale
        • 2.3 Eienskappe van materiale
        • 2.4 Verskillende materiale vir dieselfde doel
      • 3 Versterking van material

        • 3.1 Maniere om materiale te versterk
      • 4 Sterk raam strukture

        • 4.1 Stutte en raam strukture
        • 4.2 Inheemse strukture
    • Energie en Verandering

      • 1 Energie en Energie-oordrag

        • 1.1 Energie vir lewe
        • 1.2 Energie van die Son
      • 2 Energie rondom ons

        • 2.1 Energie
        • 2.2 Inset- en uitset-energie
      • 3 Beweging en energie in ‘n sisteem

        • 3.1 Beweging en musiekinstrumente
        • 3.2 Beweging veroorsaak klank
        • 3.3 Inheemse musiekinstrumente in Suid-Afrika
      • 4 Energie en Klank

        • 4.1 Vibrasies en klank
        • 4.2 Geraasbesoedeling
    • Die Aarde en die Heelal

      • 1 Planeet Aarde

        • 1.1 Kenmerke van die maan
        • 1.2 Die aarde in die ruimte
      • 2 Die Son

        • 2.1 Die Son is die naaste ster
      • 3 Die aarde en die Son

        • 3.1 Beweeg om die son
        • 3.2 Die aarde en ander planete
        • 3.3 Die Son en lewe
      • 4 Vuurpylsisteme

        • 4.1 Die Thunderbolt Kids het ‘n vuurpyl nodig
        • 4.2 Hoe werk vuurpyle?
        • 4.3 ‘n Model van ‘n vuurpyl
      • 5 Die Maan

        • 5.1 Kenmerke van die Maan
        • 5.2 Die fases van die Maan
        • 5.3 Maanstories
  • Graad 5

    • Lewende en lewende

      • 1 Plante en diere op die aarde

        • 1.1 Baie verskillende plante en diere
        • 1.2 Interafhanklikheid in ‘n ekosisteem
        • 1.2 Diersoorte
      • 2 Geraamtes van diere

        • 2.1 Geraamtes van gewerwelde
        • 2.2 Beweging in werweldiere
      • 3 Skelette as strukture

        • 3.1 Strukture
      • 4 Voedselkettings

        • 4.1 Voedsel en voeding in plante en diere
        • 4.2 Voedselkettings
      • 5 Lewensiklusse

        • 5.1 Groei en ontwikkeling
        • 5.2 Plantlewensiklusse
        • 5.3 Dierelewensiklusse
    • Materie en Stowwe

      • 1 Metale en nie-metale

        • 1.1 Eienskappe van metale
        • 1.2 Eienskappe van nie-metale
      • 2 Gebruike van metale

        • 2.1 Spesiale eienskappe van metale
        • 2.2 Gebruike van metale
      • 3 Verwerking van materiaal

        • 3.1 Kombineer stowwe
      • 4 Verwerkte materiale

        • 4.1 Eienskappe en gebruike
        • 4.2 Tradisionele verwerking
    • Energie en Verandering

      • 1 Opgegaarde energie in brandstowwe

        • 1.1 Wat is brandstowwe?
        • 1.2 Verbrand brandstowwe
        • 1.3 Veiligheid by vure
      • 2 Energie en elektrisiteit

        • 2.1 Selle en batterye
        • 2.2 Hooflyn-elektrisiteit
        • 2.2 Veiligheid en elektrisiteit
      • 3 Energie en beweging

        • 3.1 Rekke en springe
      • 4 Sisteme vir bewegende dinge

        • 4.1 Wiele en asse
    • Die Aarde en die Heelal

      • 1 Planeet Aarde

        • 1.1 Die Aarde beweeg
      • 2 Oppervlakte van die Aarde

        • 2.1 Rotse
        • 2.2 Grond kom van rotse
        • 2.3 Grondsoorte
      • 3 Afsettingsgesteentes

        • 3.1 Hoe vorm afsettingsgesteentes
        • 3.2 Gebruike van afsettingsgesteentes
      • 4 Fossiele

        • 4.1 Fossiele in rots
        • 4.2 Liggaams- en spoorfossiele
        • 4.3 Belangrikheid van Suid-Afrika se fossiele
  • Graad 6

    • Lewe en Lewenswyse

      • 1 Fotosintese

        • 1.1 Plante en kos
        • 1.2 Voedsel uit fotosintese
        • 1.3 Plante en lug
      • 2 Voedingstowwe in kos

        • 2.1 Voedselgroepe
      • 3 Voeding

        • 3.1 ‘n Gebalanseerde dieet
        • 3.2 Siektes veroorsaak deur ‘n ongesonde dieet
      • 4 Voedselverwerking

        • 4.1 Hoekom het ons voedselverwerking nodig?
        • 4.2 Hoe word voedsel geprosesseer?
      • 5 Ekosisteme en voedselwebbe

        • 5.1 Verskillende ekosisteme
        • 5.2 Lewende en nie-lewende dinge in ekosisteme
        • 5.3 Voedselwebbe
    • Materie en Stowwe

      • 1 Vastestowwe, vloeistowwe en gasse

        • 1.1 Rangskikking van deeltjies
      • 2 Mengsels

        • 2.1 Mengsels van materiale
      • 3 Oplossings is spesiale mengsels

        • 3.1 Oplossigs
        • 3.2 Oplosbare stowwe
        • 3.3 Versadigde oplossings
      • 4 Oplossing

        • 4.1 Wat is oplossing?
        • 4.2 Tempo van oplossing
      • 5 Mengsels en waterhulpbronne

        • 5.1 Waterbesoedeling
        • 5.2 Belangrikheid van vleilande
      • 6 Prosesse om die water te suiwer

        • 6.1 Skoon water
    • Energie en Verandering

      • 1 Elektriese stroombane

        • 1.1 ‘n Eenvoudige stroombaane
        • 1.2 Stroombaandiagramme
      • 2 Elektriese geleiers en nie-geleiers

        • 2.1 Wat is geleiers en nie-geleiers?
        • 2.2 Goeie elektriese geleiers en isolators
      • 3 Stelses om probleme op te los

        • 3.1 Gebruik van elektriese stroombane
        • 3.2 Wees ‘n elektriese ingenieur of ‘n tegnikus
      • 4 Elektrisiteit uit die hooftoevoerkabel

        • 4.1 Fossielbrandstof
        • 4.2 Koste van elektrisiteit
    • Die Aarde en die Heelal

      • 1 Die sonnestelsel

        • 1.1 Die Son, planete en astroïedes
        • 1.2 Mane
      • 2 Beweging van die Aarde en planete

        • 2.1 Rotasie (aarde)
        • 2.2 Omwenteling (aarde)
      • 3 Die beweging van die maan

        • 3.1 Rotasie / draai (maan)
        • 3.2 Omwenteling (maan)
      • 4 Stelsels wat die maan en Mars verken

        • 4.1 Voertuie wat op mars gebruik word
        • 4.2 Voertuie wat op die maan gebruik word
        • 4.3 Ontwerp en maak ‘n voertuig om rotse op die maan te
          versamel
      • 5 Sisteme om na die ruimte te kyk

        • 5.1 Teleskope

Living and non-living things


  • What does it mean to be alive?
  • What is a non-living thing? What does it mean to be non-living?
  • A river seems to move, so is a river living?
  • Are the plants that I eat from Gogo’s garden living or non-living?
  • How can I tell if the bean seeds from Gogo’s garden are living or non-living?
  • A chicken egg seems to be non-living, but then it can hatch into a chicken. Is the egg living or non-living?

Introducing the topic

In this unit, the learners will find out about what all living things have in common. The emphasis must not be on memorising facts or definitions but on activities that use process skills such as: observing differences, sorting and classifying, describing and drawing. As a teacher, you need to build the language needed for talking about concepts. Even if the learners use the correct word, the meanings of that word may be different for each of them. It is especially important to introduce the formal scientific terms of the seven life processes correctly and to explain each process and word-meaning accurately.

Although more technical terms may be introduced incidentally, CAPS requires that the seven life processes are named as follows: moving, reproducing, sensing, feeding, breathing, excreting and growth. Learners need to understand the seven life processes and distinguishing between living and non-living things. It is suggested that teachers make a display with these words: cut coloured A4 pages lengthwise in half, write or print the process on each long strip and use prestik to attach it to the wall in a mind-map formation. In the centre of the mind-map write: “The Seven Life Processes”. As examples of each of these processes are studied in the class let the learners add illustrations or interesting facts and build the mind-map as you work through the section.

Living things


  • process
  • conditions
  • oxygen gas
  • carbon dioxide gas
  • seedling
  • excreting waste products
  • sensing
  • reproducing

There are many different kinds of living things. It is easy to see when some things are living or non-living. It is a bit more tricky to decide with other things if they are living or not!

What is living and what is non-living?


INSTRUCTIONS

  1. Look through these photos and decide whether you think they are living or non-living.
  2. Put a ✔ next to the living things and a ✗ next to the non-living things.
  3. When you are done, discuss your choices with your class.
Flowers and plants
Water and waves http://www.flickr.com/photos/peterkaminski/325590008/
A zebra
Clouds in the sky http://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/2217496745/
Chicken eggs in a nest http://www.flickr.com/photos/brittgow/4781540407/
A burning fire http://www.flickr.com/photos/benwatts/4087289013/
A tropical fish http://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/7225883680/
Mould growing on a lemon http://www.flickr.com/photos/lizjones/310415897/



It is ok if you do not agree with everyone else’s answers! It is important that you listen to everyone when they explain what they think it means to be living or non-living.

It is not always easy to say if something is living or non-living. Many times things that look as if they are non-living can become alive again. Other things like a river or soil, are non-living but people say that the “soil is alive” or talk of the “living waters”. This is because there are so many living things that live in the soil or the water. This can be a bit confusing, don’t you think?

Look carefully at the living things in the photos. Can you see what is the same in ALL of them? Something that they maybe all DO?

  1. Introduce the unit with a class discussion. Encourage all learners to participate by calling on different learners for their opinions on what constitutes being living and non-living. Use the white or black board and write down the key concepts that are raised.
  2. Ask the learners to name the living things around you and at home.
  3. Discuss the difference in terminology between something that is non-living and something that is dead.
  4. Suggested questions:
    • What does it mean to be alive?
    • Are all living things animals? What do plants and animals need to stay alive? (Water, food, air etc.)
    • Which seven things do have all living things have in common?

Let the learners examine the photos to identify the seven life processes. Let them explain each in their own words. Encourage learners to work out an acronym to remember the seven life processes. For example:

M = Movement

R = Reproducing

S = Sensing

B= Breathing

F = Feeding

E = Excreting

G = Growth

This spells? MRS B. Feg

Characteristics of living plants and animals


This video shows how sunflowers follow the movement of the sun. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g8mr0R3ibPU&feature=g-hist

Video on hibernation. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MHAQN5wf4vg&feature=g-hist

A time-lapse video of a plant growing. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LIsVJqYk-7M

Although living things may look different, they all carry out seven similar processes. We call these the seven life processes.

Let’s take a look at each of these.

MOVEMENT: All living plants and animals move

  • Humans and animals use their bodies to move from one place to another.
  • Some plants turn towards light or water. Roots mostly grow downwards. Many stems grow upwards.
Humans move all the time. These athletes are running. http://www.flickr.com/photos/usaghumphreys/3952303284/

REPRODUCING: All living things make offspring (babies or seeds)

  • Humans and animals have babies.
  • Some new plants can grow from seeds.
  • Other plants grow from cuttings or shoots.
A mother and father with their baby

SENSING: All living things respond to any change that they sense

  • When you are feeling cold, you will put on a jersey or jacket.
  • When it becomes winter some animals hibernate.
  • In autumn the leaves on some trees change colour.
  • You can use an umbrella to protect you from the rain or from the harsh sun on a hot day.
  • Reptiles like to lie and bask in the sun on cold winter’s days.
This chameleon is basking on the wall in the winter sun.
The leaves on some trees respond to the change of the season. These leaves are turning brown during autumn.

BREATHING: All living things BREATHE gases in and out

  • Humans and animals use the gas, oxygen from the air that they breathe in. They release (give off) the gas carbon dioxide when they breathe out.
  • Plants take in the gas carbon dioxide into their leaves. They use it to make food. They then release oxygen for animals and humans to use.

FEEDING: All living animals and plants need food

  • Food gives all living things the energy they need.
  • Green plants can make their own food for energy in their leaves and stems.
  • Humans and animals eat plants to get energy.
These children are eating their lunch. http://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/6590383249/

EXCRETING: All living animals and plants have to get rid of waste products

  • Humans and animals have to get rid of waste products from their bodies.
  • There are special organs in the body which help to get rid of waste, such as the lungs, kidneys and skin. Your kidneys take the waste out of your blood and produce urine. Also, when you sweat you are actually excreting waste from your skin!
  • Plants get rid of waste water through the process of transpiration.
Do you see how shiny the horse looks? She is sweating from all that running! http://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/3451503721/

GROWTH: All living things grow

  • Human and animal babies grow into adults.
  • Seedlings grow into plants.
Growth of a seed into a seedling

All seven of the life processes must happen for something to be living. If something does not carry out all seven life processes then it is non-living. For example, if you think of a river, you may think it moves and grows, but a river does not sense or feed or excrete or breathe or reproduce so it is non-living!

Presentation hints

  1. Should teachers require further information kindly visit the site illustrating the seven life processes: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1JMT8VAWtEs&feature=g-hist
  2. In the next activity, learners are going to check their understanding of living and non-living things by doing the activity based on the seven life processes.
  3. You could let them work in pairs. Every learner has to complete the activity in his/her workbook.
  4. Go through the answers.

Understanding the seven life processes


THE REASON FOR DOING THIS ACTIVITY:

To help you understand the seven life processes.

INSTRUCTIONS:

  1. Look carefully at each photo.
  2. Next to each of the seven life processes make a ✔ if it applies to the object in that photo.
  3. If a life process does not apply to the object in the photo, make a ✗ next to that life process.
  4. Decide whether the object is living or non-living and write your answer in the last column.
  5. The first one is done to show you what to do.

African Trampoline crew

Children

Movement

Living or non-living?

Reproducing

Sensing

Feeding

Breathing

Excreting

Growing

Living


plane

An aeroplane

Movement

Reproducing

Sensing

Feeding

Breathing

Excreting

Growing


Fish monterey october 09

Fish in the sea

Movement

Reproducing

Sensing

Feeding

Breathing

Excreting

Growing


plants

A plant

Movement

Reproducing

Sensing

Feeding

Breathing

Excreting

Growing


Bouncing Ball

A bouncing soccer ball

Movement

Reproducing

Sensing

Feeding

Breathing

Excreting

Growing


Fresh Eggs

Chicken eggs

Movement

Reproducing

Sensing

Feeding

Breathing

Excreting

Growing


Informal assessment by teacher

  • Learners mime (act without using words) the life processes.
  • Learners write down the seven life processes. (Use acronym: Mrs B Feg to support weak learners where necessary.)

Ask informal questions:

  • How does the movement of plants and animals differ? Expected answers :Movement – animals can move from one place to another, while plants grow in the same place but can move towards the light or towards/away from gravity.
  • How many ways do you know of that plants can grow new plants? Expected answers: seeds, cuttings, perhaps a few might know of shoots, underground rhizomes (?) or spores?
  • Are the vegetables you eat living or non-living? How do you determine this? Expected answers: Agood way to explain this is to ask if they could plant the cooked vegetable and if new plants will grow from it. If they cannot then the item is no longer living.

Self-assessment by learners

Ask the learners to be very honest when they mark the checklist below. Check their responses and address problems.


Some things seem to be non-living, but they are not!


In the Western Cape, some fynbos seeds wait for many years in the soil. They can only start growing after a fire has burnt their hard outer shell!

Mmm, this sounds interesting! I want to find out more!

Yes, some things seem to be non-living for a very long time. They wait until they sense the right conditions to revive again. This means that they have to wait for something special to happen before they can revive and show the characteristics of living things. We say they need the right conditions to revive and show the seven life processes. Look at the pictures below of seeds which seem to be non-living!

Seeds from a coral tree http://www.flickr.com/photos/tgerus/4662650273/
Sunflower seeds. Have you ever eaten sunflower seeds? http://www.flickr.com/photos/dominicspics/5343849351/

Why do seeds seem to be non-living? How can we show that they are living?



Learners might think seeds are non-living as they do not appear to show any of the seven life processes. But things can appear to be non-living when they are actually in a dormant state. You can germinate the seeds to show that they are living.


We say the seeds are in a “dormant state” until they are given water, warmth, air, light and soil to germinate and start growing. There are other things too which seem to be non-living, but if they are given the right conditions then they can revive and carry on living.

A dove keeping her eggs warm to hatch them.

Fertilised eggs need to be kept warm or they will not hatch. This is why a mother bird will start sitting on her eggs to keep them warm when she has laid all of them.

Yeast can cause bread dough or cake batter to raise. Yeast needs warmth to come alive and start raising the bread. Some people buy dry yeast for their baking. Dry yeast needs moisture, heat and sugar to start working. That is why you will see bakers place their dough in a warm place (near the stove for example) to get it to rise.

Can I revive living things that seem to be non-living?


A shark egg often looks like a see through packet. Some people find them washed up on the beach and call them a “Mermaid’s Purse!”

MATERIALS (what you need):

  • photos of eggs hatching

INSTRUCTIONS:

  1. Look at these photos carefully.
Chicken eggs hatching. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Polluelo_rompiendo_el_cascar%C3%B3n_01.jpg
Frog eggs about to hatch into tadpoles. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Frog_eggs.jpg
Shark eggs. http://www.flickr.com/photos/jekert/3892393732/
Snake eggs hatching. http://www.flickr.com/photos/erikpaterson/4848567659/

QUESTIONS:

Study the photo of the bird sitting on her nest. Can you explain why she needs to sit on her eggs?



She needs to keep the eggs warm in order to hatch them.

Farmers often do not let the mother chickens sit on their eggs. Instead they put the eggs in something called an incubator, as you see in the picture above of the chicken eggs hatching. What does the incubator provide to the eggs?



It provides warmth.

A snake normally lays her eggs in a ‘nest’. Why does she not have to lie on top of them to hatch them?



Snakes are cold-blooded, so even if the snake did lie on top of the eggs (like birds do) it would not help them hatch as her body would not provide any heat. The heat of the sun provides the warmth to hatch the eggs.

Have you ever caught tadpoles or kept silkworms in a box? Maybe someone in your class has some that they can bring to school. In what season can you normally find little tadpoles or silkworms, and why?




Silkworms are typically available in spring and early summer, and tadpoles can generally be found in pools and ponds from spring to autumn. The eggs need warmth to hatch. The adult animals lay their eggs in these seasons because the warmth of the sun will hatch the eggs.


Germinating a seed


MATERIALS (what you need):

  • bean seeds
  • cotton wool
  • plastic lids (from empty peanut butter jars for example)

Bean seeds are the most common to get hold of, but sometimes take a bit long to grow. Lentils or coriander seeds can sometimes grow quicker. Perhaps try a mixture of the seeds.

INSTRUCTIONS:

  1. Place two layers of cotton wool in the plastic lid.
  2. Place a few of your seeds between the two layers of cotton wool.
  3. Drizzle water over the seeds. You need to water the cotton wool enough to wet it but NOT TO DROWN THE SEEDS! There should be NO WATER running over the sides of the lid or your seed will drown!
  4. Place your seeds in a warm place near a window.
  5. Water your seeds whenever you feel the cotton wool is almost dry. Be careful not to drown your seeds!

QUESTIONS:

Before you water your seeds, describe how they look and feel.



Learners should refer to the hard and dry texture of the seeds and that it looks non-living.

Draw your seeds between the cotton wool on the first day.

Check the progress of your seeds every day. How long did it take them to germinate? And what do your seeds look and feel like now?


Learners should refer to the outer layer of the seeds getting soft and moist and say that there is something growing out of the seeds.

What do you think made your seeds revive?




The water that was poured over the cotton wool kept the seeds moist (as if it was lying in moist ground). Some might also remember that they put the seeds near the window so the heat from the sun might have also helped the seeds to sprout. This is discussed extensively in the a later section so do not spend too much time on it.


Getting yeast to grow!


MATERIALS (what you need):

  • packet of dry yeast
  • sugar
  • warm water
  • an empty yogurt tub

INSTRUCTIONS:

  1. Place a teaspoon of sugar and a teaspoon of dry yeast in your yogurt tub. Mix with your spoon.
  2. Add 3 teaspoons of warm water.
  3. Stir your sugar and yeast mixture in the warm water to make sure it is well mixed.
  4. Watch to see what will happen!

SAFETY WARNING! Don’t use boiling water – it might burn you! Boiling water will also kill the yeast. You only need to use luke warm water!

QUESTIONS:

What does your yeast look and feel like before you mix it with the sugar and water?


The yeast feels like small round balls / grainy / dry / grey / non-living.

When you add the sugar to the yeast, does anything change in the yeast?


Not really – it stays the same.

What happened to the yeast and sugar mixture when you added the warm water?



It starts to bubble and smells ‘strange’. The mixture bubbles up into the tub. There is a faint fizzy noise.

How did the yeast revive?


The yeast needed the warm water and the sugar to revive from a dormant state.

Extension activity: Encourage learners to think further than this simple activity. Perhaps someone might wonder what happens if there is no sugar in the mixture or if the water is cold… Teachers are urged to actively support and applaud such scientific inquiry! Encourage learners to experiment with the yeast and see if the same results are achieved if the sugar is left out, or very little or large quantities are included; also to experiment with the temperature of the water to see if this affects the outcome.




Non-living things

Non-living things are different from living things because they do not perform all of the seven life processes.

Let’s look at an example.

Do you think this car is living or non-living?


INSTRUCTIONS:

  1. Let’s look which of the seven life processes the car carries out. (Remember if it is not an egg or a seed, if there is even one life process that something cannot do then it is not living!)
  2. Place a ✔ or a ✗ in the last column.
A car http://www.flickr.com/photos/doughay/6238714929/

Movement

Reproducing

Sensing

✗ – allow for discussion though, like if children comment that mom’s car battles to start on cold mornings.

Feeding

✔ petrol / diesel

Breathing

✔ engine uses air to sustain combustion

Excreting

✔ exhaust fumes

Growing

QUESTIONS:

How many life processes does a car have?


It has four of the life processes.

Is it living or non-living?


Four of the seven, so it is non-living.


Remember, non-living things cannot carry out all the seven life processes.

Changing from living to non-living

Living things can become non-living when they die. Look at the wood that your desk is made of. Where did the wood come from? What was once living?

Look around you in your class. Are there other things that were once living and that are now non-living or dead?


Discuss these things in your class and write some of your answers from the discussion below.





Introducing the next activity

  1. Learners need to bring objects from home to identify whether these objects are living or non-living, if they are non-living and can become living or if they were once living but are not non-living.
  2. Arrange with learners a few days before to bring in objects from home. Make suggestions that the objects can be pictures in newspapers or magazines showing living or non-living objects, toys, bones, yogurt, dried seeds as lentils, beans, flower bulbs, electric bulbs etc. Challenge learners to bring a variety of objects. Bring your own collection of objects to the class, in case some learners forget.
  3. Divide the learners in groups before they engage in the activity below. Tell them that they have 10 minutes to complete the activity. Instruct them to work together, to follow the instructions and to complete the activity. Walk to each group and help the groups that are unsure.
  4. Ask the group presenters to report back on what they learnt. Groups must be quiet during the report session and listen to one another.
  5. Discuss a few examples and allocate time for learners to ask questions. Let every learner complete the table in his/her workbook using the objects their group brought to class. Encourage them to add a few more examples to their table.

Distinguishing between living and non-living things


THE REASON FOR DOING THIS ACTIVITY:

To help you learn to distinguish between living and non-living things.

MATERIALS (what you need):

  • 3- 5 different objects that are living or non-living (bring them to school)
  • scrap paper or cardboard

INSTRUCTIONS:

  1. Divide into groups of 3 or 4.
  2. Use the scrap paper or cardboard to make four labels of the following headings:
    • Living
    • Once lived
    • Seem to be non-living but can be revived
    • Never lived
  3. Show the pictures or objects you brought to your group. Place each item or picture under one of the headings you just made.
  4. Now complete the table below with the results. If there is time left over you can add in interesting objects from other groups into your table as well.

These answers will depend on the objects brought by the pupils.

Living

Once living

Can be revived

Never lived

  1. Carefully look at these photos. Say which of these are living or non-living, or which was once living or can be revived. Write these labels below each of these.

A dog http://www.flickr.com/photos/tonamel/537819971/


Traffic lights http://www.flickr.com/photos/horiavarlan/4747872021/


Eggs http://www.flickr.com/photos/free-stock/4900327096 /

Living

Non-Living

Can be revived


Fire http://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/6307414140/


Trees

Tree


Paper

Non-living

Living

Once living


A dolphin http://www.flickr.com/photos/steelmore/98391847/


A computer http://www.flickr.com/photos/arbron/56216585/


A skull http://www.flickr.com/photos/namibnat/4948647949/

Living

Non-living

Once living


A fossil http://www.flickr.com/photos/ivanwalsh/4187244332 /


Yeast in packet


A duckling

Once lived

Can be revived

Living

Presentation hints

  1. This is a consolidation activity. Each learner should do the activity as classwork on their own.
  2. After completion, go through the table and let them mark their own work.
  3. As an extension, you can practice drawing tables by asking learners to come up to the board and helping them draw a table to represent all these answers, similar to the table in question 4.



Can you now distinguish between living and non-living things? How do you know when things are living and when they are not?



Yes, learners should be able to distinguish by now. Things are living when they display all seven life processes and they are non-living when they do not (except for seeds, eggs and yeast which can be revived again).



Now you know that we can group almost everything in the world into two groups: living and non-living things. If something cannot carry out all of the seven life processes then it is non-living. Some things were never living before like water and oxygen. Other things can be non-living now but were living before, like wood, fossils or oil.

  • We can group things on Earth as living and non-living.
  • There are seven life processes that all living things can carry out.
  • Non-living things cannot carry out all seven life processes.
  • Living things can die.
  • Some things like seeds or eggs can seem to be non-living but they can revive again.




Read the following story and then answer the questions that follow.

The Strelitzias

When the world was made, the Strelitzia birds were among the finest of all the animals created! Their bright orange feathers and dark purple wings adorned the sky and all the other animals admired their beauty. They would glide for hours, high in the sky and only came down to feed at the river bed. They would tell the other animals of all the wonderful things they had seen from high in the sky.

They made their nests in the highest cliffs. They almost never sat in the trees or walked on the ground among the other animals. As time went by, the Strelitzia birds became proud and arrogant. They started to look down on the other animals and teased them endlessly They told the tall giraffe that her neck would never know cool breezes they have felt. They laughed at the tortoise who would always have to walk through the dust, rocks and sand. They sneered at the crocodile who always had to be near the water and mocked the monkeys for being stuck in the trees.

One day the Maker came to visit the animals. Instead of the beautiful, joyous creation he had intended, he saw only sadness and tears. One by one, the animals told him how the Strelitzia birds had teased and taunted them all. The Maker became very upset at how arrogant these beautiful birds had become.

The Maker snatched from the sky, one by one, and stuck their strong, slender legs deep into the soil. Their graceful long toes became roots and their feathers and wings turned to dull green leaves. Only their crowning plumes of orange and purple remained as a reminder of their lost beauty.

If you find a Strelitzia flower today, look carefully and you will see how they are still reaching for the sky, trying to free their feet from the soil so they can fly again.

Strelitzia flower http://www.flickr.com/photos/mikebaird/7108200389/

Name five non-living things mentioned in the story.



Any five of wind, cliff, rock, soil, dirt, dust, breeze, river bed, etc

Name all the things from the story that use oxygen.



Strelitzia, giraffe, tortoise, crocodile, monkey, trees, plants

What life process in living things uses oxygen?


breathing

Give an example from the story of:

  1. moving:


  2. sensing:


  3. feeding:


  4. growth:


  1. glide, stagger, fly , walk, snatch, stick
  2. joyous, sadness, tears
  3. roots, leaves, water hole, trees
  4. dull grey leaves

The Strelitzia birds had nests high up on the cliffs. Why do you think birds like them like to build their nests high up on the cliffs?



To protect their eggs and young

What life process do we associate with the eggs in the nest?



Reproduction



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