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    Precision Engineering

    Volume 38, Issue 4 , October 2014 , Pages 948-955
    Precision Engineering

    Improved measurement characteristics in collimation testing using Lau interferometry and Fourier fringe analysis technique

    Author links open overlay panel ReenaDisawal JitendraDhanotia ShashiPrakash Get rights and content


    Interferometric technique for detection of collimation of an incoherent beam.

    Technique is based on Lau effect coupled with Fourier fringe analysis.

    Simple experimental arrangement with minimum interferometric noise.

    The technique can be well extended in phase imaging X-ray grating interferometer.

    Fully automatic technique with good accuracy and high precision.


    We demonstrate an automated procedure for the detection of collimation position of an incoherent beam in Lau interferometry using Fourier fringe analysis technique. The experimental arrangement consists of a Lau based interferometer in which light from a source grating illuminates a set of two coarse gratings separated by self imaging distance. Direct phase measurement using Fourier Transform Method (FTM) has been used to obtain the slope map of the wavefront and hence the detection of collimation position is undertaken advantageously. The experimental arrangement is simple and interferometric noise is lower. Detailed uncertainty analysis has also been reported. The technique is fully automatic and provides good accuracy and high precision.


    Lau effect
    Self imaging
    Fourier transform
    Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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    Precis Writing


    The word précis is derived from French that means summary and précis writing means the art of summarizing. Précis writing is one of the most useful skills you can acquire for your work both as a student and as a professional. Précis writing involves summarizing a document to extract the maximum amount of information, then conveying this information to a reader in minimum words.

    Definition: A précis is a clear, compact logical summary of a passage. It preserves only the essential or important ideas of the original.


    A good précis shows the writing skills of a person. It must have the following qualities.

    1. Clarity

    Clarity means getting your message across so that the receiver can understand what the writer is trying to convey. It is the basic and essential need of a précis. The ideas should be clear and understandable. There should not be any ambiguity in your writing. The writer can achieve clarity by using simple language and simple structure. If your précis is not understandable to the reader it will lose its importance and meanings for the reader.

    2. Correctness

    Mistakes in your writings always irritate the reader. Of course mistakes are never intentional; even so there is no excuse for them. At the time of writing or composing a précis the writer must ensure that the facts and figures are correct. Structure of sentences and spellings of words must be correct because a single mistake in structure and spelling may spoil the message. We may consider the mistakes under the following headings:

    • Misspelled words
    • Mistakes in figures and dates
    • Mistakes in punctuation
    • Mistakes of grammar and structure

    3. Objectivity

    Objectivity means the ability to present or view facts uncolored by feelings, opinions and personal bias. While making a précis, the writer should adopt an objective approach. He should not give and add his personal opinion and ideas in a précis. A précis should be purely a summary of the original text without any addition.

    4. Coherence

    Coherence means the logical and clear interconnection of ideas in a written piece of work. A good précis should be coherent. The ideas which are presented in a précis must have a logical connection and they all should be interrelated. In short we may say that the ideas should be well knitted so that the writer may not be confused and lose his interest.

    5. Completeness

                Another striking feature of a good précis is completeness. A précis should be complete in all respects. Completeness means that the writer should include all the important facts in a précis. To make it short he should not omit the important ideas. This mistake on the part of the writer will spoil the importance and meaning of the précis.

    6. Conciseness

    Conciseness is a desirable quality of a good précis. Conciseness means to say all that needs to be said and no more. The writer should write what is necessary and avoid writing unnecessary details. A concise piece of work conveys the message in the fewest possible words. But one point must be kept in mind that the writer should not omit some basic and essential facts to achieve conciseness. To achieve conciseness, notice the following suggestions:

    • Omitting unnecessary details
    • Eliminate wordy expressions
    • Include only relevant material
    • Avoid unnecessary repetition


    A well written précis should be a serviceable substitute for the original work. The goal of a précis is to preserve the core essence of the work in a manner that is both clear and concise. While writing a précis, the writer should follow the below given rules to make it an effective piece of work.

    Read Carefully

    First read the passage twice or thrice carefully to summarize it. This will enable you to understand the main theme of the passage.


    Underline and mark the important ideas and essential points from the original text.


    With the help of underlined ideas, draw the outline of your précis.


    Omit all the unnecessary information or the long phrases which could be replaced by one word. All the adjectives and the adverbs can also be omitted in order to make a good précis.

    Don’t Omit

    While making a précis, the writer should never omit the important points and ideas which are essential to be described.


    Keep the fact in your mind that the length of the précis should be the one third of the original passage.

    Indirect Speech

    A précis should be written in indirect speech. If there is direct speech in the passage, it should be changed into indirect speech.

    Tense and Person

    It should be written in the third person and past tense. In the case of universal truth the present tense should be used.           

    Own Words

    A précis should be written in your own words and the writer should abstain from borrowing words from the original passage.

    Précis of a Dialogue

    The précis of a dialogue or conversation should always be expressed in form of narrative.

    Objective Approach

    A précis writer should adopt an objective approach. He should not add his personal ideas to a précis. Put all the important points and ideas in a logical order.

    One Paragraph

    There could be two or more paragraphs in the original text. While making the précis, try to write all the ideas in one paragraph.

    Rough Draft

    After omitting all the unnecessary ideas, the writer should prepare a rough draft to finalize it.

    Final Draft

    Having read the rough draft and pointed out some mistakes which may be found in the rough draft, the writer can prepare the final draft.



    Read the following passage and answer the question given at the end:

    A life of action and danger moderates the dread of death. It not only gives us fortitude to bear pain, but teaches us at every step the precarious tenure on which we hold our present being. Sedentary and studious men are the most apprehensive on this score. Dr. Johnson was an instance in point. A few years seemed to him soon over, compared with those sweeping contemplations on time and infinity with which he had been used to pose himself. In the still life of a man of letters there was no obvious reason for a change. He might sit in an arm chair and pour out cups of tea to all eternity would it had been possible for him to do so. The most rational cure after all for the inordinate fear of death is to set a just value on life. If we mere wish to continue on the scene to indulge our head-strong humour and tormenting passions, we had better be gone at once,; and if we only cherish a fondness for existence according to the good we desire from it, the pang we feel at parting which it will not be very server.


    1. Suggest a suitable title for the passage.
    2. What type of people are afraid of death and why?
    3. How can we get rid of the fear of death?
    4. What idea do you form about Dr. Johnson from this passage?
    5. Explain the meanings of the words written in bold types.
    6. Make a précis of the passage.


    i)  Suitable Title: The fear if death.

    ii)  People who spend much time sitting and studying are the most afraid of death. Because they lead a peaceful life and want no change.

    iii) The most sensible way of getting rid of the fear if death is to value life properly. We should know that our hold upon life is very risky and that we may die any moment.

    iv) From this passage we learn that Dr. Johnson was afraid of death. He led a peaceful life and wanted no change. He was fond of tea.

    v) Explanation of the meanings of words;

    Precarious Tenure — Uncertain period, life

    Inordinate fear — Unreasonable fear, fear of death.

    vi) Summary or précis.

    If we lead an active life facing dangers, we will less fear death. People, who lead a lazy and peaceful life, are the most afraid of death. The most sensible way of getting rid of the fear of death is to value life properly. If we do not give unnecessary importance to our life, we will not feel the pang of death.

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    40 responses »

    1. plz chk precise plzzzzzzz – Page 2 – CSS Forums says:
      December 18, 2011 at 7:46 am

      […] […]


      • Dileep Kumar says:
        March 29, 2013 at 7:38 pm

        very very good


    2. herry says:
      January 25, 2013 at 4:33 pm



    3. sara says:
      March 16, 2013 at 3:43 pm

      good job


      • aamir says:
        March 24, 2013 at 3:00 am

        css ka exam day rahe ho


    4. M.Ammar says:
      March 22, 2013 at 12:01 pm

      realy helpfull for me


    5. k.b .shakaib says:
      April 3, 2013 at 3:10 pm

      rellay it is suuperb job and assists every learner. I admire the doer for its clearification……


    6. zahir harmani says:
      April 4, 2013 at 2:41 pm

      that’s great , very nice acceptable


    7. Ali shahid says:
      April 28, 2013 at 11:09 am

      sir g good hy


    8. farhan says:
      May 4, 2013 at 1:38 pm



    9. akki says:
      May 29, 2013 at 10:40 am

      itbis very helpful information 4 me,as i m in m.a. I yet necer know about the precis nd its importance,tnk u sir,…


    10. madi says:
      June 21, 2013 at 6:20 pm

      great job


    11. nouman says:
      June 27, 2013 at 4:36 am

      the great


    12. SANDEEP says:
      September 2, 2013 at 3:32 pm



      • Muhammad iqbal khan says:
        January 31, 2014 at 1:46 pm

        very good method and use full statement


    13. Ganesh Babu says:
      September 3, 2013 at 5:43 am

      It was very useful to revise precise writing once again, to teach in the class. I am an English teacher. Sincerely, Ganesh Babu.


    14. kamran memon says:
      November 27, 2013 at 2:12 pm

      it’s a very beautiful defination and about very good knowledge about precis?


    15. Amber Awan says:
      December 2, 2013 at 1:40 pm

      awesome …….. 🙂 thanks sir…. today I’ve the very first time heard the word ” precis”
      thanks to my cute mam 🙂


    16. Nouman says:
      December 4, 2013 at 11:55 am

      Not to know is bad, not to wish to know is worse… A lucid approach… Gratitude dude…


    17. emmanuel kudeli says:
      January 26, 2014 at 3:59 pm

      thanks I have get the knowledge about precis


    18. noman says:
      February 11, 2014 at 4:39 pm

      helpful knowledge about precis. it solve my problem…. thnx.


    19. phuntsog says:
      May 2, 2014 at 6:02 pm

      its very adequate and informative …..Thanks


    20. Farwa Sehgal says:
      May 18, 2014 at 1:29 pm

      it is really helpful and appropriate method….


    21. anum says:
      August 31, 2014 at 11:41 am

      very very good


    22. Imelda says:
      September 9, 2014 at 1:48 am

      Helpful and good


    23. hussain says:
      November 21, 2014 at 5:38 pm

      worthy …


    24. mushtaq hussain says:
      December 16, 2014 at 7:46 am



    25. Urshia Noor says:
      March 13, 2015 at 3:45 pm

      Really appreciated,,,it will really help me in the presentation ,,thanks


    26. Ali Sarwar says:
      April 19, 2015 at 1:11 pm

      really good work


    27. Arshad Mahmood says:
      May 1, 2015 at 5:24 pm

      i m student of CSS in Pak so i want to share my Precis’s experience.


    28. hamza ali says:
      May 18, 2015 at 4:18 pm

      a nice one


    29. iqbal kakar says:
      May 19, 2015 at 6:59 am

      It was clear and compact precis . the thing I like the most about this is an original passage with solved answer


    30. malik taimoor awan says:
      July 4, 2015 at 4:52 am

      it was very easy to understand the topic


    31. Deodas Agrawal says:
      September 26, 2015 at 1:54 am

      Very impressive, perfect and informative helps us improve our teaching capacity


    32. Qazi M Sami Ullah says:
      October 30, 2015 at 1:03 pm

      Thanks g Malik ap ko khushiyan de


    33. Qurat ul Ain Majeed says:
      December 1, 2015 at 3:22 am

      thankyou for making precis easy n quite understandable..


    34. Sagar Khowaja says:
      October 26, 2016 at 6:42 am

      Good Job!
      Its really appreciated.


    35. SAIRA TARIQ says:
      November 9, 2016 at 4:29 pm

      I am student of BBA i want to improve my precis writing
      What should i do to improve it?


    36. Pretty Doll says:
      January 7, 2017 at 8:17 pm

      thank u so much for this


    37. hamzaqadar says:
      May 15, 2018 at 5:41 am

      this is very very helpful methods.


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      Origem: Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre.

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      Como ler uma infocaixa de taxonomia Precis
      Vista superior da forma de estação seca de P. octavia. A forma da estação chuvosa é de cor laranja e rosada.[1][2]
      Vista superior da forma de estação seca de P. octavia. A forma da estação chuvosa é de cor laranja e rosada . [1] [2]
      Fotografia de P. archesia, em Pretória, África do Sul, mostrando sua padronagem de "borboleta-folha" em vista inferior; também encontrada em Angola, Rodésia e África Oriental.[3][4]

      Fotografia de P. archesia, em Pretória , África do Sul , mostrando sua padronagem de ” borboleta-folha ” em vista inferior; também encontrada em Angola , Rodésia e África Oriental . [3] [4]
      Classificação científica
      Reino : Animalia
      Filo : Arthropoda
      Classe : Insecta
      Ordem : Lepidoptera
      Família : Nymphalidae
      Rafinesque , 1815
      Subfamília : Nymphalinae [5]
      Tribo :Junoniini [5]
      Gênero :Precis
      Hübner , [1819] [3]
      ver texto

      Variações de cor sazonais da borboleta africana P. octavia. À esquerda, podemos ver a forma da estação chuvosa (chamada natalensis aqui); à direita, podemos ver a forma da estação seca (chamada sesamus aqui). Elas são tão diferentes em coloração e padrões que os primeiros entomologistas as denominaram diferentemente, como aqui. [1] Ilustrações retiradas de Adalbert Seitz: Fauna Africana ( 1910 ).

      Coryphaeola Butler, 1878
      Kallimula Holland, 1920 [3]

      Precis ( nomeadas , em inglês , Commodores) é um gênero de insetos contendo vistosas borboletas afrotropicais da família Nymphalidae e subfamília Nymphalinae , distribuídas pela África subsariana , incluindo Madagáscar , até o sul da Arábia ; proposto por Jakob Hübner em 1819 , com sua espécie-tipo , Precis octavia [3] , caracterizada por sua extrema variação sazonal , ou polifenismo , também ocorrendo em outras espécies de maneira mais branda. [1] [6] Muitas espécies de Precis se assemelham a folhas secas de tons castanhos ou amarelados , em vista inferior ( vide ” borboleta-folha “), principalmente quando não estão na estação chuvosa do ano . [7] [8] [9]

      • Fotografia de P. archesia, em Pretória , África do Sul , mostrando sua padronagem de ” borboleta-folha ” em vista inferior.

      • Duas borboletas do gênero Precis; acima a fêmea de P. actia, abaixo P. tugela. Ilustrações retiradas de Adalbert Seitz: Fauna Africana ( 1910 ).

      • Ilustração ( 1856 ) da borboleta P. cuama, vista inferior, espécie com as asas em camuflagem críptica de folha [9] ; retirada de Illustrations of new species of exotic butterflies. Volume II.

      • Ilustração de P. limnoria, vista superior; única espécie do gênero Precis distribuída até a Arábia , encontrada na África Oriental . Retirada de Adalbert Seitz: Fauna Africana ( 1910 ).

      • Vista superior da fêmea de P. andremiaja, uma das duas espécies de Precis nativas de Madagáscar . [3]

      • Ilustração ( 1779 ) de P. pelarga, uma espécie cujas formas de estação seca têm margens das asas mais onduladas e com camuflagem críptica . [6] [10] Da obra De uitlandsche kapellen.

      Filogenia[ editar | editar código-fonte ]

      O gênero Precis tem sido frequentemente tratado como congenérico [11] de Junonia; no entanto Lesse, em 1952 , mostrou que Junonia e Precis são bastante distintos com base nas genitálias masculinas e nas características das asas traseiras. Além disso, estudos moleculares confirmaram que ambos são gêneros distintos e não são nem mesmo irmãos . [12]

      • Ilustração da borboleta de Madagáscar Junonia rhadama (Boisduval, 1833), anteriormente colocada no gênero Precis. [13] Retirada de Adalbert Seitz: Fauna Africana ( 1910 ).

      • Fotografia da borboleta indo-malaia Junonia almana (Linnaeus, 1758), anteriormente colocada no gênero Precis. [13]

      Espécies, catalogador e nomenclatura vernácula inglesa[ editar | editar código-fonte ]

      Informações retiradas da página de Markku Savela. [3]

      • A África subsariana é o habitat da maioria das borboletas do gênero Precis. [3]

      • A ilha de Madagáscar é o habitat de duas espécies do gênero Precis: Precis andremiaja e Precis eurodoce. [3]

      • Uma espécie do gênero Precis voa ao sul da Arábia : Precis limnoria ssp. niveistictus. [3]

      • Precis actia Distant, 1880
      • Precis amestris (Drury, 1782)
      • Precis andremiaja Boisduval, 1833
      • Precis antilope (Feisthamel, 1850) Darker Commodore
      • Precis archesia (Cramer, [1779]) Garden Inspector
      • Precis ceryne (Boisduval, 1847) Marsh Commodore
      • Precis coelestina Dewitz, 1879
      • Precis cuama (Hewitson, 1864)
      • Precis eurodoce (Westwood, 1850)
      • Precis frobeniusi Strand, 1909
      • Precis limnoria (Klug, 1845) White-Spotted Commodore
      • Precis milonia C. Felder & R. Felder, [1867]
      • Precis octavia (Cramer, [1777]) Espécie-tipo : Gaudy Commodore
      • Precis pelarga (Fabricius, 1775) Fashion Commodore
      • Precis rauana (Grose-Smith, 1898)
      • Precis sinuata Plötz, 1880
      • Precis tugela Trimen, 1879 Eared Commodore


      1. a b c SMART, Paul (1975). The Illustrated Encyclopaedia of the Butterfly World, In Colour. Over 2.000 species reproduced life size (em inglês). London : Salamander Books Ltd. p. 68. 274 páginas. ISBN   0-86101-101-5   |acessodata= requer |url= ( ajuda )
      2. NSG group (26 de outubro de 2001). «NW68-10 Precis octavia» (em inglês). Flickr . 1 páginas. Consultado em 23 de julho de 2018.. Harare, Zimbabwe . 
      3. a b c d e f g h i Savela, Markku. «Precis» (em inglês). Lepidoptera and some other life forms. 1 páginas. Consultado em 23 de julho de 2018. 
      4. NSG group (4 de janeiro de 2002). «NW82-5 Precis sinuata» (em inglês). Flickr . 1 páginas. Consultado em 23 de julho de 2018.. Tanga, Tanzânia . 
      5. a b Savela, Markku. «Nymphalinae» (em inglês). Lepidoptera and some other life forms. 1 páginas. Consultado em 23 de julho de 2018. 
      6. a b Brower, Andrew V. Z. «Precis pelarga (Fabricius 1775)» (em inglês). Tree of Life Web Project. 1 páginas. Consultado em 23 de julho de 2018. 
      7. Hoskins, Adrian. «Fashion Commodore – Precis pelarga (Fabricius, 1775)» (em inglês). Learn about butterflies. 1 páginas. Consultado em 23 de julho de 2018. 
      8. NSG group (4 de janeiro de 2002). «NW82-5 Precis sinuata» (em inglês). Flickr . 1 páginas. Consultado em 23 de julho de 2018.. Tanga, Tanzânia . 
      9. a b NSG group (10 de fevereiro de 2002). «NW83-13 Precis cuama» (em inglês). Flickr . 1 páginas. Consultado em 23 de julho de 2018.. Harare, Zimbabwe . 
      10. SMART, Paul ( Op. cit. , p.71.).
      11. Semelhante; idêntico; igual; do mesmo gênero.
      12. Win, Nan Zarchi; Choi, Eun Young; Jang, Deok-Jin; Park, Jinyoung; Park, Jong Kyun (30 de dezembro de 2015). «Molecular comparison of the genus Junonia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Myanmar» (em inglês). Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity Asia-Pacific Biodiversity Volume 8, Issue 4. pp. 287–294. Consultado em 23 de julho de 2018.. The genera Junonia and Precis Hübner have often been treated as congeneric (Hemming 1934). However, Lesse (1952) showed that Junonia and Precis are quite distinct based on male genitalia and hind wing characteristics. Moreover, recent molecular studies have confirmed that they are distinct genera, and are not even sister genera (Wahlberg et al 2005b).  A referência emprega parâmetros obsoletos |coautores= ( ajuda )
      13. a b SMART, Paul ( Op. cit. , p.197.).
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