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10 Roaring Facts About Zelda Fitzgerald

BY Suzanne Raga
January 17, 2016

via Wikimedia Commons

via Wikimedia Commons

Zelda Fitzgerald was a writer, dancer, and Jazz Age celebrity who struggled on and off with mental illness. Her husband, famed writer F. Scott Fitzgerald, called her the first American flapper, and she became a 1920s icon due to her vivacious nature and bon vivant lifestyle.

1. HER FAMILY MEMBERS HELD PROMINENT POSITIONS IN THE U.S. GOVERNMENT.

Zelda Sayre was born in Montgomery, Alabama in 1900. Her father, Anthony Dickinson Sayre [ PDF ], worked as a lawyer, representative in the Alabama state legislature, state senator, city judge, and justice of the Supreme Court of Alabama. Additionally, both Zelda’s great-uncle and grandfather served in the United States Senate.

2. ZELDA WAS A WILD CHILD.

via Wikimedia Commons

In high school, Zelda’s desire to be unconventional and rebellious meant that she smoked, drank alcohol, and snuck out of her parents’ house to spend time with boys. Her friends described her as fearless, daring, and attention-seeking. Later, when she was living with her husband in New York, her carefree spirit and profligate behavior (such as jumping into fountains fully clothed) became a symbol of the 1920s.

3. HER MARRIAGE TO F. SCOTT FITZGERALD WAS INCREDIBLY TUMULTUOUS.

F. Scott and Zelda Fitzgerald, with their daughter, Scottie. Getty

Zelda’s marriage to F. Scott Fitzgerald was reportedly a toxic one, complete with alcoholism, mutual infidelity, and jealousy. Zelda accused her husband of having a gay relationship with his friend and fellow writer Ernest Hemingway, and she had nervous breakdowns throughout their marriage. Although they never divorced, the couple was estranged when F. Scott died in 1940.

4. BOTH F. SCOTT AND ZELDA ACCUSED EACH OTHER OF PLAGIARISM.

Kenneth Melvin Wright (Minnesota Historical Society [1]) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

F. Scott based some of his characters on Zelda, and he adapted his real-life interactions and experiences with her into his novels. He also copied, verbatim, entries from Zelda’s journals and put them into his books, blurring the line between fiction and reality. In a piece she wrote for The New York Tribune, Zelda poked fun at her husband, saying that he “seems to believe that plagiarism begins at home.” On the flip side, Scott dismissed and undermined his wife’s literary ambitions. He criticized her novel Save Me The Waltz, Zelda’s only published work, accusing her of using autobiographical details of their lives that he was going to use in his novel Tender Is The Night and borrowing a character’s name from one of his early protagonists.

5. SHE TRAINED TO BE A PROFESSIONAL BALLERINA.

As a child, Zelda had taken ballet lessons, but her interest in dance was renewed in her late 20s while the couple was living in France. Hoping to become a professional ballerina, she took ballet lessons in Paris with Russian dancer Lubov Egorova. Zelda trained obsessively for a few years, spending all day practicing until her dancing dreams ended when she suffered a mental breakdown in 1930.

6. WRITING AND PAINTING WERE HER CREATIVE OUTLETS DURING HER TREATMENT FOR MENTAL ILLNESS.

Zelda Fitzgerald’s “Fifth Avenue.” Penn State via Flickr // CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

Throughout the 1930s and 1940s, Zelda was in and out of mental hospitals. Although she was diagnosed with schizophrenia, her fluctuations between depression and mania would most likely get her a bipolar diagnosis today. During her time in these hospitals, Zelda kept herself creatively occupied by writing and painting. She worked on her second novel, called Caesar’s Things, and she painted scenes from Alice in Wonderland, the Bible, and New York locations like Times Square, Washington Square Park, and the Brooklyn Bridge.

7. SHE WAS KILLED IN A FIRE AT HIGHLAND HOSPITAL.

During the 1940s, Zelda worked on writing a novel and lived intermittently in Highland Hospital in Asheville, North Carolina. On March 10, 1948, a fire started in the hospital’s kitchen. Reportedly , Zelda was scheduled for an electroshock therapy session and was sedated and locked in a waiting room. Regardless of where exactly she was, the fire spread through the floors of the building via the dumbwaiter shaft, and Zelda was killed along with eight other women. She was 47.

8. THE LEGEND OF ZELDA VIDEO GAME IS NAMED AFTER HER.

In the mid-1980s, Japanese video game designer Shigeru Miyamoto needed a name for his new Nintendo heroine, and Zelda had just the right ring to it. “She was a famous and beautiful woman from all accounts, and I liked the sound of her name,”  Miyamoto has said , and thus he called the princess in his fantasy game Zelda. The game was an immediate hit.

9. THE EAGLES WROTE “WITCHY WOMAN” AFTER BEING INSPIRED BY ZELDA’S BIOGRAPHY.

After reading a biography about Zelda, Don Henley of the Eagles wrote the 1972 song “Witchy Woman” about her. It was “an important song for me,” Henley said, “because it marked the beginning of my professional songwriting career.” Describing her as a restless spirit in the song, Henley also referred to her use of absinthe (“she drove herself to madness with a silver spoon”).

10. SHE HAS BEEN IMMORTALIZED IN DESSERT TOO, THANKS TO ARTISANAL ICE CREAM.

In 2013, Jeni’s Splendid Ice Creams offered a limited edition line of ice creams inspired by Zelda. Called The Zelda Collection, the sweet treats came in four flavors meant to reflect Zelda’s life from Alabama to New York to St. Paul, Minnesota (F. Scott’s hometown). The flavors  featured were blackberries and sweet cream, cognac and marmalade, dark chocolate rye, and Loveless biscuits and peach jam. Zelda, with her appreciation for delicacies, would likely have approved.

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politics

10 Elections Decided by One Vote (Or Less)

BY Adam D’Arpino
November 5, 2018

iStock

iStock

On Tuesday, December 19, 2017, Democrat Shelly Simonds won a seat in the Virginia House of Delegates by a single vote in a narrow-as-narrow-can-get victory. Though a court quickly tossed out Simonds’s victory, and she eventually ended up conceding to her Republican opponent, it’s not the only time an election came down to a single ballot. Though a one-vote win is rare, it has happened before. On more than one occasion. Here are 10 other elections where every vote really did count.

1. United States House of Representatives elections occur more frequently (every two years) with more seats (435 since 1911, with 437 between 1959 and 1962) than any other electable federal office in the country. So it only makes sense there would be more close House calls than those for President, where Bush squeezed by Gore in Florida by a certified count of 537 in 2000, or the U.S Senate, where a two-vote margin led to a revote in a 1974 New Hampshire election. But only one time in the 20th or 21st century has a single vote made the difference in roughly 18,000 House elections: a 1910 contest for Buffalo, New York’s congressional district, where Democrat Charles B. Smith snuck by incumbent De Alva S. Alexander by a single vote,  20,685 to 20,684 (although a later recount upped that winning margin slightly).

2. Oddly, the only modern instance of a United Kingdom parliamentary election being decided by a single vote also occurred in 1910, when Conservative Henry Duke eked out a victory against Liberal Harold St. Maur in the South West England city of Exeter. St. Maur, the challenger, originally won by a four-vote count, but following an electoral petition and a series of subsequent challenges, the incumbent Duke maintained his seat at the House of Commons table by the very slimmest of margins , 4777 to 4776.

3. In the case that’s most likely to have been name-checked by your Civics or Government teacher in high school, Democrat Marcus “Landslide” Morton (so nicknamed in a delicious case of 19th century irony) won the 1839 Massachusetts gubernatorial election by just one vote. Morton finished with 51,034 votes out of 102,066—or, just enough to receive a majority, and avoid sending the decision to a vote in the hostile, Whig-controlled state legislature, where he almost certainly would have lost. He lost a reelection bid in 1840 (Massachusetts gubernatorial elections were annual affairs back then), but regained the office in 1842 by a single vote in the state legislature after no candidate secured a majority vote in the general election.

4. In 2008, an Indian politician named C.P. Joshi lost by a single vote pursuing an assembly position in the North West Indian state of Rajasthan. In the final tally, Joshi fell to opponent Kalyan Singh Chouhan by a count of 62,216 to 62,215. Reportedly, Joshi’s wife, mother, and personal driver failed to show up on election day. Kalyan Singh Chouhan’s wife, on the other hand, allegedly  cast votes at two different polling stations.

5. In the  1994 Wyoming’s House of Representatives race , Republican Randall Luthi and Independent Larry Call each finished with 1,941 votes. Following a recount that produced the same results, Governor Mike Sullivan settled the election in a most unconventional (although state-appropriate) fashion: drawing a ping pong ball out of his cowboy hat to determine a winner. Luthi’s name was drawn, and history may well have proven him the right man for the job: He served the Jackson Hole-area district until 2007, ultimately becoming Speaker of the House . 

6. When you’re listing ties and one-vote wins, the title “Closest Election” is pretty much splitting hairs. Hairs that, really, can’t be split any further. But for a time, the Guinness World Records’ choice went to the African archipelago of Zanzibar’s general election of 1961. On the January 1961 polling day, the Afro-Shirazi Party took home 10 of 22 total seats in the Legislative Council to the runner-up Zanzibar Nationalist Party’s nine. The true kicker? The Afro-Shirazi Party won the district of Chake-Chake, and thus the most legislative seats, by a vote of 1538 to 1537. And just five months later, to end the deadlock, a new election was held. Both parties won 10 seats.

7. In 2013, a mayoral election in the Philippines province of Oriental Mindoro turned ugly after Nacionalista Party’s Salvador Py tied Liberal Party’s Marvic Feraren with equals counts of 3236. The election was ultimately decided by an agreed-upon game of chance—a series of coin tosses. After tying in the first round of coin flipping, Feraren eventually emerged the victor, but Py didn’t take the slim loss easily. According to an article in the Philippine Star, the candidate contested the results, arguing that it was unfair “a mere flip of a coin decided his fate,” particularly after he got rid of all his pigs to use them “as part of his campaign collateral.”

8. In what’s probably the strangest instance of a single vote making all the difference, a 2013 state legislature election in the Austrian state of Carinthia was decided by a ballot that featured a drawing of a penis. Each ballot had one column for ranking your choices, and the other column was for your vote. The voter made two markings: A drawing of a penis in the ranking column, and a check mark was in the choices column. It was decided that the ranking took precedence, and that penis-checked ballot ended up giving a legislative seat to the Green party , and preventing a tie with the Alliance for the Future of Austria party. 

9. The National Assembly of Québec has a history of improbably close election calls. In 1994, the Saint-Jean provincial electoral district was evenly split 16,536 to 16,536 by Michel Charbonneau of the Liberal Party and Roger Paquin of Parti Québécois. In 2003 , the Champlain electoral district was split evenly split 11,852 to 11,852 between the Liberal Party’s Pierre Brouillette and Parti Québécois’ Noëlla Champagne. Each of these cases called for a second vote several weeks later, and, in both cases, the Parti Québécois candidate won by a bit over 500 votes. 

10. In Nevada, they still know how to settle ties the gentlemanly way: drawing playing cards, with the high card taking home the election spoils. In 2002, Republican Dee Honeycutt came up short, drawing a jack of diamonds to Democrat R.J. Gillum’s jack of spades for a seat on the Esmeralda County Commission. Card justice was again deployed in 2011, when Tanya Flanagan and Linda Meisenheimer tied in a North Las Vegas city council primary, and neither candidate wanted to pony up $600 for the cost of a recount. Meisenheimer ended up drawing a king to Flanagan’s five, but ended up losing the election. To which we say, $600 well-saved.

An earlier version of this article ran in 2014.

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Pop Culture

Hugh Hefner’s Personal Copy of Playboy #1 Can Be Yours

BY Jake Rossen
November 5, 2018

Courtesy of Juliens Auctions

Courtesy of Julien’s Auctions

In order to garner attention for his brand-new publication, a men’s lifestyle magazine he titled Playboy , Hugh Hefner took the audacious step of featuring actress Marilyn Monroe in the nude for the debut issue in December 1953. Monroe didn’t pose for the magazine, though: Hefner bought her nude images from a previous modeling session that took place in 1949, before Monroe’s career had taken off. Hefner paid $500 for the photos. He sold out his print run of 70,000 copies. The rest is history.

Following Hefner’s death in September 2017 at age 91, some of his personal effects have made their way to the auction block. The latest collection, which will be featured in a Julien’s Auctions sale running November 30 and December 1, includes Hefner’s personal copy of that first issue, which is expected to fetch between $3000 and $5000. The original cover price was 50 cents.

The cover of the first issue of 'Playboy' features Marilyn Monroe

Courtesy of Julien’s Auctions

Also on tap at the auction: a custom-made Playboy Monopoly board game (which is estimated to sell for between $6000 and $8000); a leather Los Angeles Lakers jacket with the Playboy insignia (worth $3000 to $5000); an Underwood Standard portable typewriter Hefner used in college (valued at $300 to $500); his trademark smoking jacket (which should go for $3000 to $5000); and Hefner’s entire personal collection of Playboy, all bound in leather volumes, which experts value somewhere between $20,000 and $40,000. Proceeds from the auction will be directed to the Hugh M. Hefner Foundation, which supports civil liberties and First Amendment rights.

While Hefner’s copy of that first issue is expected to generate considerable interest, it continues to provoke considerable controversy, as using Monroe’s photos was deemed exploitative. She did appear, at least publicly, to have a sense of humor about inadvertently launching Hefner’s empire. “Her famous comment was, ‘I had nothing on but the radio,’” Hefner told NPR in 1999. “And that classic reaction in that very repressive time—because one must remember … how really conservative the ’50s were—for a major star to … treat it in such a casual way with humor was a revelation, and a very welcome one.”

If you’re in the Los Angeles area, you’ll be able to browse the collection in person from November 26 through November 30.

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